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轩宇艺术古物鉴赏:古镜—仕灵铜镜

核心提示: 古代的镜,就是大盆的意思,它的名字叫监。《说文》中说:“监可取水于明月,因见其可以照行,故用以为镜。”在三代之初,监都是...

古代的镜,就是大盆的意思,它的名字叫监。《说文》中说:“监可取水于明月,因见其可以照行,故用以为镜。”在三代之初,监都是用瓦制成装水当镜子用,所以古代的监字是没有金字旁的。到商代初年的时候,开始铸造铜鉴,后来鉴字也有了金字偏旁。商周时期,虽然有铜鉴,但是瓦鉴依然通行。到秦朝时期,才开始大量铸造铜镜,因为镜的适用优于鉴的方面很多,所以到秦以后,再不用水作鉴了。秦汉以后,镜的使用更加广泛,镜的制作也更加精良。它的质料包括金、银、铜、铁等,以铜最为多,也有镀金银的、背面包金银的、或镶嵌金银丝的。隋唐以来,还有带柄的、四方的,各种花纹应有尽有。直到明代末期,开始有以玻璃为镜子的。清代乾隆以后,玻璃开始大兴于民间。直至民国初年,少数边远地区还有以铜为镜子的。

Ancient mirror means big basin. Its name is Jian. "Shuowen" said: "the prison can take water in the bright moon, because it can be seen according to the line, so used as a mirror At the beginning of the three dynasties, the wardens were all made of tiles to hold water as mirrors, so there was no gold character beside the ancient wardens. In the early years of the Shang Dynasty, bronze inscriptions began to be cast, and later the inscriptions also had gold characters. In the Shang and Zhou dynasties, although there were bronze inscriptions, wajian was still popular. It was only in Qin Dynasty that a large number of bronze mirrors were cast. Because the application of mirrors was superior to that of mirror identification, there was no need to use water for mirror identification after Qin Dynasty. After the Qin and Han Dynasties, the use of mirrors became more extensive and the production of mirrors became more sophisticated. Its materials include gold, silver, copper and iron, most of which are copper. There are also gold-plated, bread backed or inlaid with gold and silver wires. Since the Sui and Tang Dynasties, there have been handle and square patterns. Until the end of Ming Dynasty, there began to use glass as a mirror. After Qianlong in Qing Dynasty, glass began to flourish among the people. Until the early years of the Republic of China, a few remote areas had copper as a mirror.

铜镜形状有圆形、长方形、正方形、菱形、葵花形、盾形、瓶形、钟形、桃子形等。纹饰则各具时代特征:殷商时期多用叶脉纹、平行线纹、多圈凸弦纹等;西周时期多用重环纹、鸟兽纹等;春秋战国时期多用山字纹、凤鸟纹、蟠螭纹等;汉代除继续沿用战国镜纹饰外,最流行的纹饰有规矩纹(博局纹)、草叶纹、星云纹、连弧铭文纹、蝙蝠形柿蒂连弧纹等;三国两晋南北朝时期则多用兽纹、变形四叶纹、瑞兽纹等;隋唐时期多用瑞兽纹、四神纹、花鸟纹、宝相花纹、海兽葡萄纹、十二生肖像纹等;五代以来由于政局变化,铜镜铸造也有明显的时代差异和独特的民族风格

The bronze mirrors are round, rectangular, square, diamond, sunflower, shield, bottle, bell, peach, etc. The patterns have their own characteristics: in the Yin and Shang Dynasties, veins, parallel lines, and multiple circles of convex strings were used; in the Western Zhou Dynasty, heavy rings, birds and animals were used; in the spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, mountain characters, phoenix patterns, and flat patterns were used; in the Han Dynasty, in addition to the Warring States mirror patterns, the most popular patterns were regular patterns (local patterns), grass leaves patterns, nebulae patterns, even arc inscriptions, and bat shaped persimmons Tilian arc pattern, etc.; in the Three Kingdoms, two Jin and southern and Northern Dynasties, animal pattern, deformed four leaf pattern, auspicious animal pattern, etc.; in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, auspicious animal pattern, four God pattern, flower and bird pattern, Baoxiang pattern, sea animal grape pattern, twelve zodiac image pattern, etc.; since the Five Dynasties, due to political changes, bronze mirror casting also has obvious era differences and unique national style.

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轩宇艺术有幸征得一件仕灵铜镜,此铜镜历经时间长河的洗练,已被铜锈包裹,其整体被保护完好,铜镜以圆形为造型,镜背从纽座起,以圆纽为中心以外皆镌有各种古老纹饰。此件铜镜采用平雕手法,镜面较平,花纹平整,镜边简略,装饰性强。极具收藏价值。

Xuanyu art has the honor to obtain an official bronze mirror. After a long time of washing, the bronze mirror has been covered by copper rust, and the whole is well protected. The bronze mirror is in the shape of a circle. The back of the mirror starts from the button seat and is engraved with various ancient patterns outside the center of the round button. This bronze mirror adopts flat carving technique, with flat mirror surface, flat pattern, simple mirror edge and strong decoration. It has great collection value.

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铜镜,大体分为镜面,即镜的正面,光亮可以照面;镜背,上面多铸有各种纹饰和铭文;镜钮,即在镜背中央,有孔可以系绳,可用手持或系在镜台上;钮座,即钮的周围,紧连钮的装饰部分。另外还分内区、中区、外区,即指镜背配置纹饰的各部分;铭带,即指铸有铭文的部分,镜铭即指镜背上所铸的铭文。而到了明清时期,铜镜逐渐以花纹、神兽为纹饰,而铭文铜镜则逐渐消失。

The bronze mirror is generally divided into mirror surface, that is, the front side of the mirror, which is bright and can shine on the surface; the back of the mirror, which is often cast with various patterns and inscriptions; the mirror button, which is in the center of the mirror back, has holes and can be tied with ropes, which can be held or tied on the mirror platform; the button base, which is around the button, is the decorative part of the button. In addition, it can be divided into inner area, middle area and outer area, that is, the parts with decorative patterns on the back of the mirror; inscription belt, that is, the parts with inscriptions, that is, the inscriptions on the back of the mirror. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, bronze mirrors were decorated with patterns and animals, while bronze mirrors with inscriptions gradually disappeared.

丰富艺术生活,传递艺术价值!如果您对此件铜镜感兴趣,欢迎联系轩宇(广州)艺术传媒有限公司!

Enrich art life and transfer art value! If you are interested in this bronze mirror, please contact Xuanyu (Guangzhou) art media Co., Ltd!

分享是一种美德,分享是一种快乐,学会分享,快乐他人!

Sharing is a virtue, sharing is a pleasure, learning to share, happy others!

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轩宇(广州)艺术传媒有限公司

 

联系地址:广州市天河区珠江新城华夏路30号富力盈通大厦808

公司官网:www.xuanyuart.com

联系电话:400-156-3599

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Tags:艺术 古物 鉴赏 古镜 铜镜